”The more you engage in any type of emotion or behavior the greater your desire for it will become”.
Once your work is done for the day, do you like to spend time outside, going for walks or playing sports? Or do you like to stay inside to play video games or surf the Internet?
Is the internet making us crazy? Angry? Dumb? Depressed? Anxious?
A big YES says researchers! According to them ”connection addiction” is rewiring your brain. ”A computer is like electronic cocaine, fueling cycles of mania followed by depressive stretches.” says Peter Whybrow, the director of the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.
Internet technology is a new, super-fast development in the history of the human race and little research has been done so far on the impact it has on the human brain and it’s development during childhood. Technology, regular cell phone usage, and constant access have rewired the brains of most.
Nearly everyone is constantly checking their phone for the latest Facebook update, text message, app update, or even just browsing the web for news. Most people have inadvertently become dependent upon cell phones to navigate the world. Out of the world’s estimated 7 billion people, 6 billion have access to mobile phones. Problematic technology include: cell phones, Xbox, PlayStation games, tablets, PC’s and internet.
The Bureau of Market Research at UNISA has just released alarming statistics of the technology use among secondary school leaners in South Africa.
- 80% of leaners always keep a cell phone close to them
- 70% use a cell phone while watching TV (Multi-tasking)
- 60% indicated they cannot live without it
- 85% do not keep track of time they spend on texting
- 80% feel nervous without their cell phone
- 75% spend more than 3 hours per day on social media/texting/internet
- 62% said they stayed online longer than intended
- 56% shows problematic texting behaviour.
Internet problems covers a range of severity namely:
Mild problems we perceive among typical well-functioning individuals who texts multiple times per hour or ignore family and friends at get together in favor of texting.
Moderate problems we perceive among individuals whose screen time activities result in moderate family discord and inefficient work, but who are still able to for example get good grades and take part in sport (if its a kid).
Severe problems are detected among individuals who have an inability to control their online behavior despite significant resultant problems such as isolation, falling grades, family turmoil and withdrawal from friends, family and activities. These can be caused by addiction to social media, pornography, gambling and or online gaming.
How do we differentiate between a bad habit or addiction?
One noticeable difference between habit and addiction is the amount of effort and time required to change the behavior. Altering habits requires minimal effort, time, and attention. On the other hand, addiction often demands an integrative, long-term plan to treat negative physical symptoms like withdrawal as well as the emotional disconnect between body and behavior.
Symptoms of Internet Addiction Disorder
- Severe anger (Anger Quiz)
- Problems with decision making
- Lack of self control
- Problems with concentration (Multi-tasking)
- Sleep disturbances
- Lack of personal hygiene
- Eating patterns changing
- Sexual dysfunction (Porn addiction) (Pornography Quiz)
- Poor social skills
The addictive behaviour gave rise to new terms like:
Nomophobia : is the fear of being out of mobile phone contact.
“Phantom vibration syndrome” : the syndrome known as “phantom vibration” is characterized by an individual falsely perceiving that their cell phone is either vibrating or ringing at a time when it clearly isn’t. Those that experience phantom vibration syndrome may be engaging in an activity away from their cell phone, yet believe that it’s ringing .
Ringanxiety : is another term for phantom vibration syndrome – just watch people when someone’s phone rings – they ‘ll check theirs too just in case.
Anhedonia : the inability to feel pleasure.
FOMO : fear of missing out.
Catfish : are people who deliberately create fake personal profiles online with the intention of tricking an unsuspecting person into falling in love with them.
iPredator: A person, group or nation who, directly or indirectly, engages in exploitation, victimization, coercion, stalking, theft or disparagement of others using Information and Communications Technology [ICT].
How does someone get addicted?
It begins with either seeking enjoyment ( this is fun!) or seeking escape (this game / activity takes my mind of my problems). Screen time leads to a pleasurable experience and it is mediated by the neuro-transmitter dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is know as the pleasure chemical in the brain.
Because we quickly build up tolerance against pleasure, we seek more of it to get the same amount of pleasure. It is a psychological process that creates a need for ever stronger stimuli to produce the same effect – much the same as a drug chases the next high. So it drives the person to watch more, spend more and more time online.
Another driver of addiction is withdrawal – the moment we cease the activity, the pleasure chemical dopamine stops being released and we experience the symptoms as uncomfortable – a discomfort stemming from abstinence. This constant seeking of stimuli leads to more problems in life. The person loses control over the activity – it control him/her now. Many people with ADHD are already prone to the need for rapid and immediate stimuli, which helps explain their proneness to all sorts of addictions.
The pleasure principle
Addictive drugs trigger feel-good brain chemicals such as dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, a cluster of nerve cells lying underneath the cerebral cortex, also known as the brain’s pleasure centre.
Internet Addiction changes the brain similar to cocaine. A Facebook addict and cocaine addict has the same brain changes that indicates addiction on brain scans.
But wait – what is dopamine?
In your brain certain chemicals are released for your brain to function normally. They are called neuro-transmitters. NEUROTRANSMITTERS are the brain chemicals that communicate information throughout our brain and body. They relay signals between nerve cells, called “neurons.” The brain uses neurotransmitters to tell your heart to beat, your lungs to breathe, and your stomach to digest. Dopamine is the brain’s pleasure chemical.
Pleasure is just the tip of the dopamine iceberg. Dopamine’s impact on the body is felt in many different areas, including motivation, memory, behavior and cognition, attention, sleep, mood, learning, and oh yeah, pleasurable reward.
The mesolimbic pathway, which originates in the middle of the brain and branches to various places like the cerebral cortex, is the most important reward pathway in the brain. One of the mesolimbic’s stops is the nucleus accumbens. Increased dopamine in the nucleus accumbens signals feedback for predicting rewards. Your brain recognizes that something important — good or bad — is about to happen, thus triggering motivation to do something. In this instance it motivates you to text on your cell phone, or surf the internet, watch a porn movie on your PC or play a playstation game.
The learning process and development of tolerance
Dopamine interacts with another neurotransmitter, glutamate, to take over the brain’s system of reward-related learning. This system has an important role in sustaining life because it links activities needed for human survival, such as eating and sex, with pleasure and reward. So, dopamine is good for you, until it gets too much. Repeated exposure to an addictive substance causes nerve cells to communicate in a way that couples ‘liking’ something with ‘wanting’ it. This, in turn, drives us to go after it.
Over time, dopamine has less impact on the brain’s reward center and more of the substance is needed to obtain the same dopamine “high”.
Compulsion takes over
Your brain is very clever. It quickly stores information about environmental cues associated with the desired substance. These memories help create a conditioned response – intense craving – whenever the person encounters such environmental cues. Cravings contribute not only to addiction but also to relapse during periods of abstinence.
Example: The possibility of receiving a message on your cell phone when the screen lights up – triggers dopamine release. The same with your ringtone, red numbers that indicates new messages, a vibration of a cell phone…
At first a person will experience no symptoms of increased dopamine secretion. As it progresses however the reward centre starts to block off the access dopamine, till eventually it blocks it off completely. By this time the person will be unable to experience feelings of pleasure. The term used to describe this state is ”Anhedonia” – inability to feel pleasure.
How do addicts cope with anhedonia?
There has been a sharp increase in people who self-harm in the past few years. It seems to have become a trend, a coping mechanism of the youth today. During a recent survey, secondary schools pupils were asked if they know of someone who self-harms , and 70 -80% have indicated that they do know of someone who does. It also seems to be a predominantly teen thing. Reasons for self- harm are most of the time a chaotic home environment, sexual abuse and overuse of internet technology.
You may ask why internet technology?
When kids have cut off all dopamine from their ”pleasure centre” in their brains, they don’t feel anymore. To start feeling again, they turn to cutting. When they cut, another neurotransmitter is released – endorphin. The pain from cutting makes the brain sense injury and floods their system with endorphin’s, which acts as natural pain reliever. It is not as powerful as dopamine and the high they get, quickly dissipates. Then they have to cut again, and again, and again. Cutting eventually becomes more extreme, deeper and they draw blood. Some cut all the way to the bone after a while to get the endorphin release. The top three reasons for digital anhedonia is watching pornography, playing social video games and internet surfing. Self Harm Quiz.
”A digital home lends itself to isolation.” Imagine a house where every family member is occupied on their own device / TV / PC / PlayStation. They are all together, yet disconnected. That is not God’s plan for any family. Isolation leads to loneliness.
Wise words from the book Digital Cocaine : A Journey Toward iBalance. Brad Huddleston. 2015
Effects of multitasking:
- Multitasking lowers your work quality and efficiency.
- Multitasking makes it more difficult to organize thoughts and filter out irrelevant information.
- You make more mistakes.
- You remember less and have greater difficulty in understanding.
- You have problems with concentration, anger and frustration.
- It is linked to depression.
Multitasking can lower your IQ by between 10-15% . For men, multitasking can drop IQ as much as 15 points, essentially turning you into the cognitive equivalent of an 8-year-old.
Recovery from Addiction
How to treat Internet Addiction?
Prevention is the best remedy.
Before you give your child their first digital screen technology – for example a PC/ Cell phone / iPAD / Notebooks – explain the dangers and what they need to know about internet safety, set passwords for their safety and have them sign a contract with you about their use of technology.
Here is a printable version of a contract:
Recognize that total abstinence from internet technology is neither possible nor desirable.
Just as a sex addict cannot abstain from sex for life, or a food addict cannot stop eating altogether, so can an internet addict not abstain from the internet permanently. Computer use is a virtual necessity fro modern life. The goal is therefore to moderate use. For example: ”I will only use the computer for work, email and online banking.” Set bottom-line behaviours, for example ” I will never visit gambling or porn sites,” or ”I will never stay online when I am not working, or when my partner has gone to bed.”
Please note professional help is likely to be required for true addiction. Commonly suggested therapies include motivational interviewing, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Dialectic therapy and family therapy.
Parents dilemma in setting limits:
Parents watch their child spend hours on digital media and are torn between the emotions of pride over their prodigy’s technical prowess, happiness that they are preparing their child for the future, and fear about the as yet incompletely known possible effects of all this technology use on their child’s brain and future.
Did you know?
- Did you know that Steve Jobs never allowed his children to use the devices he invented?
- Did you also know that Silicon Valley IT experts from Google, Yahoo, Hewlett-Packard and Facebook send their kids to Waldorf Schools, where technology is only introduced (sparingly) from the age of 12 years….Why?
- What do they know about the effects of technology on the developing brain of a child that we don’t know?
More – According to one survey (Porter 2013):
- 90% of teachers felt technology had created a distracted generation with short attention spans.
- Almost 50% felt it hurt critical thinking and homework ability
- 76% felt students were conditioned to find quick answers.
- 60% felt it hindered writing and face-to-face communication.
How to reverse damage and heal from Internet Addiction
- Teens need 9 hours sleep per night. This generation often survive on 4-6 hours sleep.
- Remove all technology from your bedroom when you go to bed. No flickering lights from a Hi-fi, TV or PC. Bedroom must be dark.
- Use a traditional alarm clock to wake up, not a cell phone.
- Use real books instead of Kindle’s preferably.
- When you play games – choose board games instead of online games.
- No music while you are studying and no cell phone in your room while you are studying. The faintest vibration or flickering light from your cell phone will trigger dopamine release and distract you.
- No music while you sleeping – it triggers dopamine which will effect you.
- Turn off all technology 2 hours before you go to sleep. The dopamine levels must return to low levels for you to get a decent nights sleep. Dopamine release causes a flight or fight response which you don’t need when you sleep.
- Set house rules for the use of all technology – for example no phones when having meals.
- Keep track of time spend on social media.
- Check monthly phone and internet bills.
- Check the online visit history on the PC of your children.
- Teach children etiquette on cell phone use AND LEAD BY EXAMPLE.
- Create support groups for parents with children who are problematic users of internet technology.
If you have a problem with being dependent on social media, your cell phone, your PC and surfing the internet for long periods of time, playing online games and watching pornography – please chat to a facilitator and get help. LIVE CHAT. The service is free and you may stay anonymous.
You can do a self-test quiz to learn more about Internet Addiction: